Nuclear Weapons Effects

Potential Cancer Deaths Lifetime Percent

Estimations of “Potential Cancer Deaths Lifetime Percent” due to radiation exposure are based on the Federal Emergency Management Agency “Nuclear Attack Planning Base: 1990 Final Project Report (NAPB-90),” page 25. For the dose listed, one-third is assumed to be received during the first week. The remaining two-thirds radiation dose is assumed to be received after the first week over the long term.

Current Cancer Death Lifetime Percent

The current probability that a person will contract a fatal cancer over a seventy-five-year lifetime is 16 to 20 percent depending on sex. This is known as the “current cancer death lifetime percent.” The value of 18 percent shown in the table was chosen as a median level to allow a fixed point of reference.

The “potential cancer death lifetime percent” includes the current cancer death lifetime percent of 18 percent. The table is based on a potential increase in cancer death rates of 1.25 percent for the first one hundred rems and 3 percent for radiation doses over one hundred rems.

0-100 REMs = (1.25% * REMs/100) + 18%

100+ REMs = (3% * REMs/100) + 18%

Potential Cancer Deaths Rate

The “potential cancer deaths rate”/100,000 is based on the American Cancer Society “Facts and Figures for 1987,” page 29, for both males and females during 1981 to 1983. The current rate of cancer deaths is approximately 352/100,000 per year. The increased rate includes the current rate in proportion to the “potential cancer deaths lifetime percent.”

The Modern Shelterist

It cannot be overemphasized that these potential cancer rates are based on the victims of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings who met the following criteria:

  • Were malnourished and already suffering from many diseases during a critical wartime period where food, medical supplies, and other necessities were in short supply
  • Had already been exposed to the effects of blast and heat and were consequently in shock, with few facilities and medical help to allow complete recovery
  • Had absolutely no knowledge about radiation. They were unaware of the danger of fallout from the bomb casing. Consequently, many people suffered beta burns from the fallout being in direct contact with their skin.
  • Were exposed to not only gamma radiation but neutron radiation, which is much more damaging to the human body
  • Ingested the fallout by inhalation and contaminated food, which is the most damaging to the human body

An educated and prepared shelterist is able to avoid the effects that the Hiroshima and Nagasaki victims suffered. It must be noted that these five effects may act synergistically; that is, these effects may amplify each other. Thus, these potential cancer death rates may be excessively high, but this allows the shelterist to prepare for the worst.

For example, if a person receives ten rems starting immediately after detonation, 3.33 rems are assumed to be received during the first week. Of this ten rems, 6.66 rems are assumed to be received after the first week. This would increase the percentage of contracting a fatal cancer from the current level of 18 percent to 18.1 percent.

McCarthy, Walton W. Appendix A. Principles of Protection: U.S. Handbook of NBC Weapon Fundamentals and Shelter Engineering Design Standards. Dallas: Brown Group, 2013. 662. Print.

 

SHORT-TERM EFFECTS FROM ACUTE RADIATION DOSES

Short-Term Effects From Acute Doses* Long-Term Effects
Dose REMS Potential Cancer Deaths Rate/100,000 Potential Cancer Deaths Lifetime %
0.01 Dental X-Ray (Whole Mouth) 352 18.0
0.4 Lumbar Spine X-Ray 352 18.0
0.5 Mammography X-Ray 352 18.0
1.0 Barium Enema 352 18.0
10
20
30
The human body can tolerate doses in this range on a consistent basis without any changes in blood formation. 355
357
359
18.1
18.3
18.4
40
50
No visible effects. There are changes in the blood that the body can adequately deal with. Regular activities may continue. 362
364
18.5
18.6
60
70
80
90
100
120
140
160
180
Brief periods of nausea on day of exposure. Up to 50 percent may experience radiation sickness (nausea); 5 percent may require medical attention. No deaths expected. Radiation therapy typically uses 180 to 200 rems per day for a period of one to six weeks. Some cases require localized doses while others require organ doses. 367
369
372
374
376
422
434
446
458
18.8
18.9
19.0
19.1
19.3
21.6
22.2
22.8
23.4
200
250
300
350
400
450
Most will require medical attention because of serious radiation sickness; 50 percent deaths within two to four weeks. 469
499
528
557
587
616
24.0
25.5
27.0
28.5
30.0
31.5
460
500
550
600
Serious radiation sickness; all require medical attention. Death for more than 50 percent within one to three weeks. 622
645
675
704
31.8
33.0
34.5
36.0
600-1,000 Death for 50 percent within one to three weeks.
1,000-5,000 100 percent deaths in two to fourteen days.
5,000+ 100 percent deaths in zero to two days.

*Doses received within a twenty-four-hour period.

McCarthy, Walton W. Appendix A. Principles of Protection: U.S. Handbook of NBC Weapon Fundamentals and Shelter Engineering Design Standards. Dallas: Brown Group, 2013. 662. Print.

Nuclear Weapons Effects: 1 MT Surface Burst with 15 MPH Wind

1-MT SURFACE BURST 15 MPH WIND Miles Downwind of Ground Zero
Weapon Effects Units MSD .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1 2 3 4 5 10 50 100
Thermal Burns degree FB FB FB FB FB FB 3 3 3 3 3
Thermal Energy Skin cal/cm2 3,500 3,500 2,300 1,600 1,200 900 700 140 52 28 16 3
Maximum burst Wind mph 2,000 2,000 1,700 1,500 1,400 1,100 800 260 150 100 70 22
Maximum Overpress psi 200 200 130 85 70 48 38 9 5 3 2 1
Overpressure Arrival seconds 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 8 14 16 45
Overpressure Duration seconds 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 45
Max. Dynamic Pressure psi 350 350 190 130 100 58 30 2 <1 <1 <1
Peak Vert. Displacement inches 11.7 11.7 8.8 6.6 5.8 4.5 3.9 1.4 0.8 0.5
Peak Horiz. Displacement inches 3.9 3.9 2.9 2.2 1.9 1.5 1.3 0.5 0.3 0.2
Total Neutron Radiation rems 1,000,000 1,000,000 500,000 210,000 130,000 56,000 32,000 40
Total Fallout Gamma rems 12,988 12,988 12,988 12,988 12,988 12,988 12,988 12,988 12,988 12,988 12,509 9,137 1,073 277
Total Initial Gamma rems 250,000 120,000 80,000 50,000 20,000 10,000 80 3
Fallout Arrival Time hours 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 2.9 6.3
Fallout Radiation Doses
Week One rems/day 1,692 1,692 1,692 1,692 1,692 1,692 1,692 1,692 1,692 1,692 1,665 1,192 131 32
Week Two rems/day 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 51 37 7 2
Week Three rems/day 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 34 24 5 2
Week Four rems/day 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 18 3 1
Month Two rems/day 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 0.5 0.2
Month Three rems/day 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 0.4 0.1
Month Four rems/day 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0.3 0.1
Month Five rems/day 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 0.3 0.1
Month Six rems/day 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 0.2 0.1
Crater Radius = 370-660 ft (dry, hard rock-soft, wet soil)
Crater Depth = 190-260 ft (dry, hard rock-soft, wet soil)
Maximum Cloud Radius = 10.0 miles
Maximum Cloud Height = 13.0 miles
Maximum Fireball Radius (FB) = 0.9 miles
Minimum Survival Distance (MSD) = 0.5 miles
=No measurable effect

McCarthy, Walton W. Appendix A. Principles of Protection: U.S. Handbook of NBC Weapon Fundamentals and Shelter Engineering Design Standards. Dallas: Brown Group, 2013. 663. Print.

Nuclear Weapons Effects: 500 KT Surface Burst with 15 MPH Wind

500-KT SURFACE BURST 15 MPH WIND Miles Downwind of Ground Zero
Weapon Effects Units MSD .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1 2 3 4 5 10 50 100
Thermal Burns degree FB FB FB FB 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Thermal Energy Skin cal/cm2 3,250 2,000 1,300 900 600 490 360 70 27 13 8
Maximum Blast Wind mph 2,000 1,600 1,400 1,200 800 600 550 220 105 70 48
Maximum Overpress psi 200 120 70 50 36 28 23 7 3 2 1
Overpressure Arrival seconds 0 <1 <1 <1 1 1 2 5 10 14 20
Overpressure Duration seconds <1 <1 <1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4
Max. Dynamic Pressure psi 300 170 110 60 25 14 10 1 <1
Peak Vert. Displacement inches 9.8 6.9 4.7 3.7 3.0 2.5 2.1 0.8
Peak Horiz. Displacement inches 3.3 2.3 1.6 1.3 1.0 0.8 0.7 0.3
Total Neutron Radiation rems 1,000,000 600,000 220,000 110,000 46,000 23,000 14,000 40
Total Fallout Gamma rems 11,854 11,854 11,854 11,854 11,854 11,854 11,854 11,854 11,854 11,154 10,387 7,035 771 210
Total Initial Gamma rems 125,000 125,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 9,000 4,000 10 1
Fallout Arrival Time hours 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 3 6
Fallout Radiation Doses
Week One rems/day 1,541 1,541 1,541 1,541 1,541 1,541 1,541 1,541 1,541 1,446 1,351 914 95 24
Week Two rems/day 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 47 44 42 28 5 2
Week Three rems/day 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 30 28 19 3 1
Week Four rems/day 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 22 20 14 2 0.8
Month Two rems/day 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 0.3 0.1
Month Three rems/day 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 0.3 0.1
Month Four rems/day 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 0.2 0.1
Month Five rems/day 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 0.2 0.1
Month Six rems/day 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 0.2 0.1
Crater Radius = 317-528 ft (dry, hard rock and soft, wet soil)
Crater Depth = 148-206 ft (dry, hard rock and soft, wet soil)
Maximum Cloud Radius = 7.4 miles
Maximum Cloud Height = 11 miles
Maximum Fireball Radius (FB) = 0.7 miles
Minimum Survival Distance (MSD) = 0.4 miles
= No Measurable Effect

Note: Decimal places are used to show progression of effects and are not intended to indicate fractional accuracy.

McCarthy, Walton W. Appendix A. Principles of Protection: U.S. Handbook of NBC Weapon Fundamentals and Shelter Engineering Design Standards. Dallas: Brown Group, 2013. 664. Print.

Nuclear Weapons Effects: 200 KT Surface Burst with 15 MPH Wind

200-KT SURFACE BURST 15 MPH WIND Miles Downwind of Ground Zero
Weapon Effects Units MSD .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1 2 3 4 5 10 50 100
Thermal Burns degree FB FB 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2
Thermal Energy Skin cal/cm2 1,500 900 560 400 300 220 180 35 14 7 4
Maximum Blast Wind mph 2,000 1,200 750 600 480 400 340 120 65 40 28
Maximum Overpress psi 200 52 35 25 20 15 12 4 2 1
Overpressure Arrival seconds 0 <1 1 1 1 2 2 5 10 16 20
Overpressure Duration seconds <1 <1 <1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 3
Max. Dynamic Pressure psi 300 65 25 12 7 5 3
Peak Vert. Displacement inches 7.9 2.9 2.2 1.6 1.3 1.0 0.8
Peak Horiz. Displacement inches 2.6 1.0 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3
Total Neutron Radiation rems 1,000,000 170,000 76,000 35,000 20,000 10,000 4,500 10
Total Fallout Gamma rems 10,464 10,464 10,464 10,464 10,464 10,464 10,464 10,464 9,925 8,938 7,854 776 507 138
Total Initial Gamma rems 50,000 50,000 20,000 9,000 4,000 2,500 1,000 3
Fallout Arrival Time hours 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 3 6
Fallout Radiation Doses
Week One rems/day 1,362 1,362 1,362 1,362 1,362 1,362 1,362 1,362 1,290 1,157 1,024 643 62 16
Week Two rems/day 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 40 36 32 20 3 1
Week Three rems/day 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 26 24 21 13 2 0.8
Week Four rems/day 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 19 17 15 10 2 0.6
Month Two rems/day 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 1 0.2 0.1
Month Three rems/day 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 0.2 0.1
Month Four rems/day 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 0.9 0.2 0.1
Month Five rems/day 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 0.8 0.1
Month Six rems/day 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.7 0.1
Crater Radius = 238-396 ft (dry, hard rock and soft, wet soil)
Crater Depth = 106-159 ft (dry, hard rock and soft, wet soil)
Maximum Cloud Radius = 5 miles
Maximum Cloud Height = 9 miles
Maximum Fireball Radius (FB) = 0.5 miles
Minimum Survival Distance (MSD) = 0.3 miles
= No Measurable Effect

Note: Decimal places are used to show progression of effects and are not intended to indicate fractional accuracy.

McCarthy, Walton W. Appendix A. Principles of Protection: U.S. Handbook of NBC Weapon Fundamentals and Shelter Engineering Design Standards. Dallas: Brown Group, 2013. 665. Print.

Nuclear Weapons Effects: 100 KT Surface Burst with 15 MPH Wind

100-KT SURFACE BURST 15 MPH WIND Miles Downwind of Ground Zero
Weapon Effects Units MSD .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1 2 3 4 5 10 50 100
Thermal Burns degree FB 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1
Thermal Energy Skin cal/cm2 2,500 500 350 230 180 130 110 22 9 7 3
Maximum Blast Wind mph 2,000 700 500 400 340 280 240 85
Maximum Overpress psi 200 30 21 15 12 10 8 2
Overpressure Arrival seconds <1 <1 <1 1 1 2 2 8
Overpressure Duration seconds <1 <1 <1 1 1 1 1 2
Max. Dynamic Pressure psi 300 20 9 5 3 2 1 <1
Peak Vert. Displacement inches 6.9 1.5 1.0 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.3
Peak Horiz. Displacement inches 2.3 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1
Total Neutron Radiation rems 1,000,000 80,000 25,000 15,000 7,000 4,000 1,600
Total Fallout Gamma rems 9,554 9,554 9,554 9,554 9,554 9,554 9,554 9,064 8,507 7,478 6,379 3,753 375 100
Total Initial Gamma rems 25,000 25,000 10,000 4,500 2,000 1,200 500 2
Fallout Arrival Time hours 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 1 3 6
Fallout Radiation Doses
Week One rems/day 1,240 1,240 1,240 1,240 1,240 1,240 1,240 1,174 1,107 969 831 493 45 12
Week Two rems/day 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 36 34 30 26 15 3 0.9
Week Three rems/day 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 24 22 20 17 10 2 0.6
Week Four rems/day 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 18 17 15 12 7 1 0.4
Month Two rems/day 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 0.2 0.1
Month Three rems/day 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 0.8 0.1
Month Four rems/day 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 0.7 0.1
Month Five rems/day 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 0.6 0.1
Month Six rems/day 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.9 0.5 0.1
Crater Radius = 211-317 ft (dry, hard rock and soft, wet soil)
Crater Depth = 90-127 ft (dry,hard rock and soft, wet soil)
Maximum Cloud Radius = 3.7 miles
Maximum Cloud Height = 7 miles
Maximum Fireball Radius (FB) = 0.35 miles
Minimum Survival Distance (MSD) = 0.24 miles
= No Measurable Effect

Note: Decimal places are used to show progression of effects and are not intended to indicate fractional accuracy.

McCarthy, Walton W. Appendix A. Principles of Protection: U.S. Handbook of NBC Weapon Fundamentals and Shelter Engineering Design Standards. Dallas: Brown Group, 2013. 666. Print.

Nuclear Weapons Effects: 50 KT Surface Burst with 15 MPH Wind

50-KT SURFACE BURST 15 MPH WIND Miles Downwind of Ground Zero
Weapon Effects Units MSD .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1 2 3 4 5 10 50 100
Thermal Burns degree FB FB FB FB 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Thermal Burns degree 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 1
Thermal Energy Skin cal/cm2 2,400 250 170 120 90 70 50 10 4 2 1
Maximum Blast Wind mph 2,000 470 350 290 240 210 170 60 30
Maximum Overpress psi 200 19 13 10 8 7 6 2 1
Overpressure Arrival seconds <1 <1 2 2 2 2 2 6 10
Overpressure Duration seconds <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 1 1 2 2
Max. Dynamic Pressure psi 325 7 4 2 2 1 1
Peak Vert. Displacement inches 6.0 0.7 0.4
Peak Horiz. Displacement inches 2.0 0.2 0.1
Total Neutron Radiation rems 1,000,000 30,000 17,000 7,000 3,000 2,000 1,000
Total Fallout Gamma rems 8,645 8,645 8,645 8,645 8,645 8,645 8,645 7,980 7,301 6,210 5,168 2,912 280 73
Total Initial Gamma rems 12,000 12,000 5,000 2,000 1,000 500 250 7
Fallout Arrival Time hours 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 3 6
Fallout Radiation Doses
Week One rems/day 1,130 1,130 1,130 1,130 1,130 1,130 1,130 1,041 951 813 674 378 33 9
Week Two rems/day 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 32 29 25 21 12 2 0.7
Week Three rems/day 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 21 19 17 14 8 1 0.4
Week Four rems/day 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 16 14 12 10 6 0.9 0.3
Month Two rems/day 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 0.8 0.1
Month Three rems/day 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 0.6 0.1
Month Four rems/day 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.5 0.1
Month Five rems/day 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.9 0.8 0.5 0.1
Month Six rems/day 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.8 0.7 0.4 0.1
Crater Radius = 185-317 ft (dry, hard rock and soft, wet soil)
Crater Depth = 79-132 ft (dry, hard rock and soft, wet soil)
Maximum Cloud Radius = 2.8 miles
Maximum Cloud Height = 7.5 miles
Maximum Fireball Radius (FB) = 0.4 miles
Minimum Survival Distance (MSD) = 0.19 miles
= No Measurable Effect

Note: Decimal places are used to show progression of effects and are not intended to indicate fractional accuracy.

McCarthy, Walton W. Appendix A. Principles of Protection: U.S. Handbook of NBC Weapon Fundamentals and Shelter Engineering Design Standards. Dallas: Brown Group, 2013. 667. Print.

LEGEND FOR WEAPON EFFECTS TABLES

Thermal Burns Degree of burn an unprotected person would receive.1
Thermal Energy-Skin The heat, in calories per square centimeter (Cal/cm2) of skin, that unprotected, medium-dark human skin would receive.2
Maximum Blast Wind The speed, in miles per hour, at which the blast wave travels.3
Maximum Overpressure The intensity, in pounds per square inch, of crushing overpressure.4
Overpressure Arrival The time, in seconds, from detonation to reach various distances from ground zero.5
Overpressure Duration The length of time, in seconds, the overpressure will be in effect.6
Maximum Dynamic Pressure The drag force, in pounds per square inch, on objects at or above the ground surface.7
Peak Vert. Displacement The peak surface and residual vertical displacement based on a seismic velocity of 1,414 fps.8
Peak Horiz. Displacement The peak horizontal displacement = one-third of the peak vertical displacement.9
Total Neutron Radiation The total dose of neutron radiation in rems. This dose is delivered within sixty seconds of detonation.10
Total Fallout Gamma The total dose of gamma radiation in rems from fallout using the DELFIC model.11
Total Initial Gamma The total dose of initial gamma radiation.12
Fallout Arrival Time The time, in hours, it takes for fallout to arrive at various distances from ground zero with a fifteen-mph wind.13
Fallout Radiation Doses The dose of radiation, in rems/twenty-four hr day, during various periods (week one, week two, month two, etc.) following detonation that an unprotected person would receive. These doses are based on no precipitation of any kind. Rain would allow the radioactive fallout particles to leach into the soil and reduce these doses.14
Crater Radius15
Crater Depth16
Maximum Cloud Radius17
Maximum Cloud Height18
Maximum Fireball Radius (FB)19
Minimum Survival Distance (MSD)20

Notes:

  • Based on weapons which are 50/50 fission/fusion.
  • Based on height of burst, optimizing weapon effects, and properly detonating.
  • Based on ideal surfaces (flat terrain; no trees; clear atmosphere at sea level; with no wind and no rain, snow, or fog.)
  • Radiation doses would be reduced by half if twelve hours per day are spent in adequate shelter.
  • All effects, except for fallout radiation doses, are not related to being upwind or downwind of ground zero.
  • All values are rounded to the nearest whole number.
  • One week equals 168 hours; one month equals four weeks or 672 hours.

NOTES

1 US Department of Defense and Energy Research and Development Administration. Effects of Nuclear Weapons. Compiled by Samuel Glasstone and P. J. Dolan. Washington, DC. 1977. 305-312. These values are based on Figure 12.64 on page 564 using medium skin.

2 US Department of Defense and Energy Research and Development Administration. Effects of Nuclear Weapons. Compiled by Samuel Glasstone and P. J. Dolan. Washington, DC. 1977. Calculated on the Nuclear Bomb Effect Computer.

3 US Department of Defense and Energy Research and Development Administration. Effects of Nuclear Weapons. Compiled by Samuel Glasstone and P. J. Dolan. Washington, DC. 1977. Calculated on the Nuclear Bomb Effect Computer.

4 US Department of Defense and Energy Research and Development Administration. Effects of Nuclear Weapons. Compiled by Samuel Glasstone and P. J. Dolan. Washington, DC. 1977. Calculated on the Nuclear Bomb Effect Computer.

5 US Department of Defense and Energy Research and Development Administration. Effects of Nuclear Weapons. Compiled by Samuel Glasstone and P. J. Dolan. Washington, DC. 1977. Calculated on the Nuclear Bomb Effect Computer.

6 US Department of Defense and Energy Research and Development Administration. Effects of Nuclear Weapons. Compiled by Samuel Glasstone and P. J. Dolan. Washington, DC. 1977. Calculated on the Nuclear Bomb Effect Computer.

7 US Department of Defense and Energy Research and Development Administration. Effects of Nuclear Weapons. Compiled by Samuel Glasstone and P. J. Dolan. Washington, DC. 1977. Calculated on the Nuclear Bomb Effect Computer.

8 Federal Emergency Management Agency. Protective Construction Nuclear Blast Resistant Design, TR-20. Vol. 4. Washington, DC. March 1985. Chapter 6, 6-16.

9 Federal Emergency Management Agency. Protective Construction Nuclear Blast Resistant Desing TR-20. Vol. 4. Washington, DC. March 1985. Chapter 6, 6-16.

10 US Department of Defense and Energy Research and Development Administration. Effects of Nuclear Weapons. Compiled by Samuel Glasstone and P. J. Dolan. Washington, DC. 1977. These values were calculated on the Nuclear Bomb Effect Computer and graphed as smooth curves to prevent errors from logarithmic increments.

11 These values were determined by Edward York, using the DNA Weapon Effects Rule WEG-1, 257-261. Prepared for the Defense Nuclear Agency by Horizons Technology Inc. under contract DNA 001 83-C-0004.

12 These values were developed by Dr. Joseph McGahan of the Scientific Applications International Corporation. These values are not theoretical. They were derived from the DELFIC model, which is based on actual radioactivity measurements made on site of the nuclear surface burst tests conducted in the United States prior to the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1964.

13 US Department of Defense and Energy Research and Development Administration. Effects of Nuclear Weapons. Compiled by Samuel Glasstone and P. J. Dolan. Washington, DC. 1977. These values were determined based on section 9.97 on page 430 for a wind speed of fifteen mph.

14 These values were developed by Dr. Joseph McGahan of the Scientific Applications International Corporation. These values are not theoretical. They were derived from the DELFIC model, which is based on actual radioactivity measurements made on site of the nuclear surface burst tests conducted in the United States prior to the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1964.

15 US Department of Defense and Energy Research and Development Administration. Effects of Nuclear Weapons. Compiled by Samuel Glasstone and P. J. Dolan. Washington, DC. 1977. Calculated on the Nuclear Bomb Effect Computer.

16 US Department of Defense and Energy Research and Development Administration. Effects of Nuclear Weapons. Compiled by Samuel Glasstone and P. J. Dolan. Washington, DC. 1977. Calculated on the Nuclear Bomb Effect Computer.

17 These values were developed by Dr. Joseph McGahan of the Scientific Applications International Corporation. They were derived from the DELFIC model which is based on measurements made on site of the nuclear surface burst tests conducted in the United States prior to the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1964.

18 US Department of Defense and Energy Research and Development Administration. Effects of Nuclear Weapons. Compiled by Samuel Glasstone and P. J. Dolan. Washington, DC. 1977. Cloud heights based on Figure 2.16 on page 34.

19 US Department of Defense and Energy Research and Development Administration. Effects of Nuclear Weapons. Compiled by Samuel Glasstone and P. J. Dolan. Washington, DC. 1977. Calculated on the Nuclear Bomb Effect Computer.

20 US Department of Defense and Energy Research and Development Administration. Effects of Nuclear Weapons. Compiled by Samuel Glasstone and P. J. Dolan. Washington, DC. 1977. Based on 200 psi and calculated on the Nuclear Bomb Effect Computer. It is possible to survive much closer; however, special materials and engineering must be used.

McCarthy, Walton W. Appendix A. Principles of Protection: U.S. Handbook of NBC Weapon Fundamentals and Shelter Engineering Design Standards. Dallas: Brown Group, 2013. 670. Print.